Varieties ripen at different times
The actual ripening period of planted potatoes depends on the variety of the root crop and the planting time. On the seed package, the approximate growing season is indicated:
- “Medium” variety of potatoes – after planting will lie in the ground from 65 to 80 days;
- mid-ripening – after flowering, potatoes ripen for a maximum of 4 days. The total duration of development of tubers is from 80 to 95 days;
- medium late – ripens in 95-100 days;
Most of the time will have to wait until the full vegetative ripening of summer residents who have chosen late-ripening potato varieties. It will be possible to grow a large harvest in at least 110-115 days.
On a note!
Potato varieties are selected taking into account the duration of the warm time, the desired taste characteristics, the need for winter storage.
How Long Does It Take To Grow Potatoes?
Potato ripening period from planting to harvest, what is vegetation
Planting potatoes, is one of the most popular and profitable activities among gardeners and summer residents.
There are many information concerning the versatility and practicality of this vegetable crop, but few know how to achieve the maximum harvest and the ripening period, but only experienced agronomists, professionals in their field.
Before starting to grow potatoes, every self-respecting gardener should find out the main factors that will affect the ripening time of the crop, as well as the quality and quantity of potatoes.
What is potato vegetation?
The growing season is the period of time during which the plant goes through the active growth phase. At this moment, the formation of underground shoots and the development of tubers at their ends is observed.
The potato used for food is a vegetative organ in which all the necessary nutrients accumulate during development.
The growing season of potatoes varies from 70 to 140 days. Also, the duration of this stage depends on varietal properties, as well as growing conditions. Sometimes in one area several varieties are bred at once with different ripening periods.
Ripening dates of potato varieties
Potato vegetation can be divided into stages:
- The period from sowing and the appearance of the first shoots to the formation of buds.
- From the beginning of flowering to the final stage of green mass development.
- From the beginning of the slowdown in the growth and development of the tops until its final withering away, during which tubers are formed.
For each variety, as well as depending on the region of cultivation, the regularity and correct care of the plant, these stages are individual in time and course.
According to the duration of ripening and growing season, vegetable crops can be divided into 5 categories:
Potato variety Early Mid-early Mid-season Mid late Late
Ripening period (day) 50-65 65-80 80-95 95-110 From 110
The duration of the growing season in early potatoes is 50-65 days. When growing these root crops, you can get a crop in July, for which it is considered early ripening. The material planted during warming rises in early May.
The advantages of such varieties are that representatives are less likely to get sick with late blight, since the tops must be removed in August.
Potatoes grow quickly, but the yield rate is often low, and in the composition of root crops there is a little starch and dry matter in general. Popular varieties of early ripe potatoes – Alena, Aeriel.
The varieties ripen within 65-80 days, a little longer than early ripening ones. Tubers develop rapidly in fertile soil and require a significant amount of moisture before harvesting.
The most popular among agronomists are the following varieties: Scarlett, Ilyinsky. Almost half of the dry matter of the root crop is starch.
The varieties are characterized by high yields and produce high-quality root crops already in the first days of August. It is recommended to start the planting at the beginning of the last month of spring.
When growing, it is required to emphasize that the plants growing during this period are at risk of fungal and viral diseases.
In particular, they progress in summer with a large amount of precipitation and with sharp changes in temperature.
Mid-late potatoes ripen immediately after flowering, and the growing season itself lasts for 4 months, you should not dig out the tubers ahead of schedule.
During this period, root crops will be able to accumulate a sufficient amount of dry matter. Gardeners choose these varieties for their excellent taste and also for their impressive shelf life.
A characteristic feature of this type of potato is that It can maintain the capacity for long-term storage without losing its useful properties and nutritional value. You need to plant the material in mid or late May. It is recommended to dig out the harvest from September.
The main thing is that enough time has passed since landing: at least 120 days. The culture cannot die as a result of severe frosts, since in May there is no longer the likelihood of their occurrence.
What determines the maturity rate of tubers?
Even experienced agronomists often encounter a problem when tubers of the same type of culture are formed at different times, that is, they have different ripening periods. It depends on certain factors.
For each potato variety, the maturation period and rate are individual. When buying potatoes for planting, their botanical features are carefully studied, namely, the ripening time, the rules for planting and caring for the plant.
When growing, it is worth considering not only the individual characteristics of the variety, but also the climate of a particular region of culture growth. In those areas where there is a possibility of spring frosts, it is worth postponing the cultivation of potatoes.
If the plant was planted early enough, from the point of view of the varietal characteristics of the culture, then there is a threat of death of the plant from the cold, which can begin completely unexpectedly for the spring months.
You should familiarize yourself with the characteristics and characteristics of the variety, find out the optimal sowing period.
Excessive fertilization in order to accelerate the course of the potato growing season may not always be effective, but even vice versa.
A large amount of organic matter in the soil can negatively affect the quality of potatoes, increasing the nitrate content in its composition.
In the absence of minerals in the soil, the growth and development of tubers occur rather quickly, but their quality may suffer. In the presence of all possible inorganic compounds, the formation of root crops can be delayed.
Moisture amount and air temperature
Excessive moisture slows down the growing season, since the tubers are saturated with water and activate their development, but in the absence of regular watering, the soil dries up and the tops stop growing. When it dries up, the roots begin to develop rapidly and the period for harvesting potatoes is shortened.
A sharp drop in temperature can negatively affect the quality of the potatoes, resulting in a large number of small tubers.
Ways to accelerate ripening
The desire to get a vegetable faster sometimes plays a cruel joke. When growing potatoes, you should arm yourself with the rule: “Faster is not better.” If you resort to growing potatoes at high speed, both the quality and quantity of root crops may suffer.
With late planting or unfavorable weather conditions, it significantly increases the growing season. In such cases, it is worth resorting to methods of accelerating ripening to quickly obtain a root crop with good marketable qualities:
- Mowing tops. A simple and effective method that is carried out a week before harvesting. The plant will consider that this is a signal for the end of the growing season and will begin to form tubers quickly.
- Spraying with copper sulfate. To accelerate ripening, use a solution of copper sulfate in a ratio of 5 g per 1 liter of water. You need to process the plant with this tool two weeks before harvest. The action of the drug: it draws out all the moisture from the green mass of the plant, leads to drying, gives a signal to accelerate the formation of root crops.
- Chlorate treatment. The method is effective after the rainy season. To prepare the substance, it is necessary to dissolve 20 g of magnesium chlorate in 1 liter of water. With its help, you can accelerate the drying of the tops and the formation of tubers.
- Superphosphate introduction. To prepare the solution, combine 2 kg of superphosphate and 10 liters of water.
It is worth considering that spraying with chemicals should be carried out in the daytime or in the evening after flowering, using 5-10 liters of solution per one hundred square meters.
Weather conditions when picking potatoes
It is well known that when the green tops after flowering begins to dry out, then it is time to dig up roots and harvest in the beds. This is considered the main sign by which gardeners are guided.
It is better to pick potatoes in a warm sunny period of time, preferably in the late afternoon, before it gets dark. In this case, the air temperature during harvesting should vary in the range from 12 to 17 degrees.
It is necessary to start harvesting dry tops and harvesting faster if precipitation is predicted. Abundant humidity at the end of the growing season can negatively affect the root crop, provoke the development of fungal diseases.
It is recommended to dry the harvested tubers in the fresh air, trying to avoid direct sunlight. Then send it to a dark, dry storage room, which should be well ventilated and have high humidity. If the potatoes are intended for planting next year, then keep them in the light for some time before planting.
Each vegetable garden has its own methods and techniques for accelerating the ripening period of potatoes. To get healthy and presentable tubers, you need to pay special attention to the rules of planting, crop care and storage of the crop, and then enjoy the taste of potatoes all year round.
What factors affect the rate of maturation
Potatoes of any variety grow unevenly from planting to harvest throughout the year. In botany, there are enough examples of how tubers of the same variety ripen at different times. There are several reasons for the uneven growth of planted potatoes:
- Topdressing – the more the summer resident applies fertilizer to the soil, the longer the growing season lasts for the bushes. The second problem is that excess nutrition increases the nitrate level in tubers.
- Saturation of soil (water, nutrients) – poor soil speeds up the harvest time.
- Planting time – before planting potatoes ahead of the time indicated on the package, the summer resident weighs all the pros and cons. It is necessary to abandon such an idea in regions with the risk of sudden frosts, otherwise Even before the beginning of the maturity period, there is still a great possibility of losing some crops..
Botanists do not advise summer residents to experiment with artificial draining or depletion of the soil. The wrong actions will lead to the fact that the grower will lose the crop.
When to harvest
The summer resident, who regularly inspects the site, monitors the condition of the tops. As soon as it begins to fade, they begin to harvest. It makes no sense to keep the tubers for more than 21 days after the start of the active phase of wilting of the tops.
Skeptics say potatoes will continue to grow without losing flavor. Botanists object. The long-term presence of already ripe potatoes in the ground will make it impossible to store the crop for a long time after harvesting.
The second rule is that the tops do not always wither as the cold weather approaches. If there is a frost on the hike, and the deadlines are not met, you need to take action. The summer resident accelerates the ripening of seedlings. The sooner it is completed, the less chance of crop loss.
. Botanists are urging to be careful. Acceleration of ripening is carried out taking into account the planted variety, soil characteristics.
How many days do potatoes grow from planting to harvest and harvesting features
It’s no secret that the cultivation of potatoes in our country is one of the most popular solutions of many summer residents and other land owners.
Much has been said about the high productivity and versatility of this vegetable plant, but only experienced agronomists and specialists know how to achieve maximum harvest, as well as about the ripening period of potatoes. through this read we are going to talk about how to achieve positive results as efficiently as possible, as well as about the important factors that have a direct impact on the future harvest.
The relationship when choosing a variety of potatoes and timing of collection
The period when the wilted tops die off occurs at different times of the year for each of the regions. The same applies to the landing. Such differences are explained by the unique climatic features of a particular region. To neutralize this difference, a good agronomist must be able to choose the right potato variety for a specific region.
In the process of persistent breeding, all available types of potatoes were divided into 5 main groups:
- An early ripe potato variety, the cultivation period of which is 50-65 days from the moment of planting.
- Medium early potatoes, which ripen from 65 to 80 days.
- A mid-season variety is ready for digging in 80-95 days.
- Vegetation of medium late potatoes is 95-110 days.
- But late-ripening potato varieties yield no earlier than 110 days of being in the other.
Due to these values, you need to select a representative of a certain group individually for Weather and weather conditions in your area
. In addition, when choosing the appropriate potato variety, it is important to take into account not only the ripening period, but also such important factors as the purpose of the variety, its special taste, the ability to tolerate frost, etc.
What affects the ripening period?
Even the most experienced agronomists often encounter a situation when tubers of the same variety, during harvest, have different ripening periods. This phenomenon is explained by several factors:
- With excessive use of organic fertilizers, in order to increase the growing season of potatoes (read more about this below). Another “reverse coin” of using this method is the increased amount of nitrates in the tubers themselves;
- Mineral enrichment of the soil used. Infertile soil, the growing season and growth of tubers can be delayed, while in soil poor in minerals, the ripening period begins much faster;
- Ripening of potatoes also depends on the amount of moisture. So, on dried up soil, the rapid wilting of the bushes contributes to a faster ripening.
But faster in this case does not mean better. If over-enrichment with nitrates entails an immaturity of the crop, which will be extremely difficult to resist the influence of low temperature, then in the last two cases, the early ripening of varieties after harvesting will give a small number of small tubers.
Potato growing season
Few know the biological feature of potatoes, which implies the presence of several phases during the maturation of the plant. In the first 20-25 days after planting, seedlings ripen. And after the expiration of this period, the potato growing season begins, which is divided into 4 phases.
- Budding. When the mass of the aboveground part of the plant reaches its maximum, a gradual wilting of the tops begins. The root system is being actively formed.
- Bloom. The emergence of aboveground buds coincides with an active budding process deep underground. Underground tubers begin their development.
- Height. This is the main and longest growing season, during which there is a systematic increase in tuber cells. and it depends on the variety of potatoes and the factors listed above that affect the ripening period, this period can last from 40 to 65 days.
- Desiccation. This phase will be marked by the withering away of the tops (occurs 60-90 days after planting). Advice! To accelerate the ripening of tubers at this stage, the tops must be removed before harvesting for 10-12 days.
How to speed up the ripening of potatoes
Wet summers or late planting of potatoes can delay the ripening period.
In this case, the problem of digging up young potatoes in the fall is revealed, which promises unpreparedness for planting not for the winter due to its unformed peel, and its inability to withstand frost.
In this case, experienced agronomists use the above-described method of mowing the not yet dead tops, giving a signal to the plant to complete the growing season earlier than expected.
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In addition, there are a number of available chemicals that greatly accelerate the production of marketable potatoes earlier than expected, without the risk of damaging the young fetus.
- A solution of copper sulfate (5gr: 1l), after spraying the beds with it, dries the plant as efficiently as possible, forcing the tops to die off, and the tubers to ripen much faster.
- Superphosphate solution (2kg: 10l) has the same effect. Important! It must be applied in the evening and only after the flowering period.
- If the weather conditions for potato ripening were unfavorable (heavy rainfall, or significant temperature drops), it is advantageous to use a solution of magnesium chlorate (20gr: 1l). After waiting for a period of relative dryness, apply the chemical to the green plant, and after 5 days it will dry out and signal the rhizome to begin the final stage of ripening.
Clara Demari, 56 years old, household farm:
“My land plot is located in a lowland and heavy rainfall in summer negatively affects the ripening of mid-early potato varieties. A solution of magnesium chlorate comes to the rescue, the use of which does not affect the taste, and the tubers themselves look healthy and strong ”.
James Smith, 48 years old:
“To obtain healthy and ripe tubers, it is necessary to take into account the air temperature, the mineral balance of the soil, the distance between the plants (tubers located next to each other will not receive enough minerals and moisture), as well as fight against pests.”
Olga, 50 years old:
“It is very important to choose the ideal weather period during harvest. The optimum temperature for digging out tubers is considered to be 11-17 degrees Celsius.
Yes, start harvesting, let the air warm up, because this way you risk freezing the potatoes. But don’t delay until late at night! The lower threshold for air temperature should not be + 5 ° C.
Otherwise, it is very likely to cause mechanical damage to the potatoes.. “
Ways to accelerate the ripening of potatoes
Despite the fact that each variety of potatoes ripens for as many days as it is laid down by nature, the summer resident can intervene. The first rule is planting green manure crops near potatoes.
The term refers to crops that have a positive effect on seedlings near them. The second rule is that potato plantings are treated with chemicals in the morning or evening.
Excessive cold or heat is only harmful. Adherence to the recommended concentration level of the substances used will help speed up the growing season of the planted potatoes.
Superphosphate introduction For 10 liters of water, take 2 kg of superphosphate Processing is carried out in the evening or at dawn. The second rule – from the moment of sowing, at least ½ of the prescribed time interval for ripening must pass
Chlorate treatment Early planted potatoes are subject to processing. For 1 liter of water, take 20 grams of magnesium chlorate. Treat after the rainy season is over.
Haulm mowing The manipulation is carried out 7 days before the potatoes are ripe The faster the seedlings are deprived of their tops, the more nutrients it will send to the development of tubers.
Copper sulfate For 1 liter of cold water, take 5 g of the substance. Seedlings are processed 14 days before the onset of the harvesting stage. Copper sulfate speeds up the actual growing season of the tops. By depriving it of nutrients and water, the substance leads to its wilting
Weather The accounting of the heavenly office will help to speed up the ripening of the planted potatoes on your own. As mentioned earlier, ripe root crops can be harvested immediately after the flowering of the tops has stopped. If she also began to dry out, then the summer resident should immediately get to work. Each potato should be removed from the ground on a fine day in the evening. Recommended temperature +12 + 17 С
On a note!
The harvest time depends on the rainy season. If the tops have not yet begun to dry up, and forecasters promise long rainfall, then the summer resident can not wait for the final ripening of the root crops. You can harvest a little earlier. The important thing is to ensure that the tops have passed their peak of positive growth.
Conditions for growing potatoes
The optimal temperature for root development of horticultural crops is + 13 … + 14 ° С, and you can plant it already at + 9 ° С. However, nothing will happen to the tubers if the soil cools down to + 7 ° C, but their development slows down.
Interesting! When planning the planting of potatoes, gardeners are guided not only by the phases of the moon, but also by signs.
The best time is considered to be the formation of birch leaves to the size of 1 kopeck, the end of flowering of bird cherry and dandelion.
It is better to place the beds in the north-south direction and choose the site in a well-lit place since the tops are stretched when shaded. In addition, the accuracy of planting is of great importance – no more than 400-700 bushes per 100 m².
Water consumption increases with growth and decreases with tuber formation. The optimum humidity is 60-80%.
Plants need maximum watering during flowering. But after planting, the lack of moisture is easily tolerated, so you don’t have to travel to the site every day.
Excess moisture and flooding is dangerous at all stages, but it is most destructive for young bushes. The risk of contracting bacterial infections increases.
The soil should be light. It is important to ensure drainage if the beds are in lowlands. Nutrient requirements – 5 m² requires 50 g of nitrogen, 20 g of phosphorus and 90 g of potassium.
In autumn, it is better to add: rotted manure, manure and peat compost (1: 3), residues of household waste or rotted grass, silt, wood ash. To increase the yield per 100 m², add: 2 kg of ammonium nitrate, 5-10 kg of double superphosphate and 2-4 kg of potassium sulfate. For better development, siderates are periodically planted.
Attention! To protect against late blight and stimulate the formation of tubers, root watering is carried out 1 month before harvesting. 2 g of copper sulfate, 200 g of double superphosphate, 40 g of ammonium nitrate and 10 g of potassium salt are dissolved in a bucket of water.
Application of green fertilizers on the site
During the cultivation of potatoes, summer residents refuse to use chemicals. The reason is not a desire to accumulate nitrates in tubers or the impossibility of using such substances. Either way, botanists offer an alternative.
As mentioned earlier, green manure crops, the number of which is insignificant, have a positive effect on the soil. No risk of accumulation of chemicals in tubers:
- Cereals – early and late maturing potato varieties grow well near rye. The summer resident relieves the beds of weeds and pathogenic fungi. Another “plus” of rye is that it quickly loosens the soil. Even on depleted soil, large tubers grow.
- Legumes – Phacelia and beans will help increase the yield. Both crops are rich in nitrogen, which reduces soil acidity. Planting legumes near potatoes is carried out immediately after harvesting in early September.
Mustard is a plant that botanists classify as universal. Seedling vegetation will take place without the risk of being attacked by bacteria, fungi, weeds. The only caveat is that mustard and legumes are alternated every year.
The reason is that mustard is not rich in nitrogen. If the rule is ignored, then the growing season will be defective.