There is always work in the country, spring – sowing seedlings of vegetables and flowers, seedlings of fruit trees. Summer – tending crops and harvesting. Autumn – soil preparation after clearing the beds, sowing, and planting before winter. If you know what to plant in September you should first know the pros and cons of Autumn planting:
What Are The Pros & Cons of Autumn Planting?
Usually gardeners sow garlic, onions and green manure before winter. But practice shows that in the fall you can plant some herbs, vegetables, trees, and shrubs. They do this for the following reasons:
- There is a natural selection of plants: in difficult weather conditions, the most persistent and strong will survive.
- In winter, horticultural crops are well hardened: neither sudden frosts nor most diseases will take them.
- The price for all seedlings is significantly lower than in the spring. Moreover, their quality, since they are freshly dug, is many times better than those that survived the cold somewhere in the room.
- If the plant is planted before winter, it will need minimal care. Basically, this is the planting itself, watering, applying a small amount of fertilizer, mulching, or covering with special material.
- All crops planted in autumn grow, develop and yield earlier than others.
- In the spring, it is easy to assess the germination of seeds sown, and if something goes wrong, the garden should be sown again.
- Having collected the first early harvest the next year, you can make another sowing and get a second.
Autumn planting is a risky business and has its drawbacks
- If the seedlings of trees and bushes did not have time to get stronger or the planting of greens and vegetables was carried out without taking into account the climate and weather in the area, the garden crops will be irreparably damaged. It will not be possible to restore them.
- Autumn for rodents is the time of greatest activity. They are able to destroy all works during the late autumn and winter.
- Some types of greens and root vegetables tend to go early in the spring, you will have to carefully choose varieties.
What to plant in September in open ground
In winter, the earth seems to be asleep. But under a thick blanket of snow, the quiet breath of life is preserved. There are crops that are strongly recommended to be sown just before winter.
First of all, this applies to garlic. It can be planted in the second half of September at a temperature of +5 ° C. The garlic that has passed the winter hardening is much larger than the one sown in the spring, it is perfectly stored, contains a greater amount of nutrients.
The onion set left before the spring sowing dries and rots, 70% of the seeds will not survive the winter. Having planted it in the garden in the fall, we will harvest an early harvest, and the feathers of green onions will come in handy in the first green salads.
To get spicy herbs early, you should plant small-seeded parsley, dill, spinach, sorrel, parsnips, as well as frost-resistant salad varieties in September. The seeds of these plants easily tolerate cold under snow and give early shoots.
For insurance, cover the greenhouse with foil or agrofibre, and you will be provided with early vitamins.
Excellent results are achieved when sowing seeds of carrots, beets, radishes, turnips before winter. They are buried in the ground a little more than in spring plantings in order to avoid losses from freezing. The first root crop is harvested 3-4 weeks earlier than usual.
Strawberries and garden strawberries are best planted and planted in September. Planted in the fall, these crops bear fruit well next year.
In the Moscow region, such work is performed in the first ten days of September, so that the plants have time for rooting before the first frost.
Autumn work in the garden ends with planting in the land of green manure left for spring sowing – mustard, oats, buckwheat, clover, alfalfa and others.
Green manure plants enrich the soil with microelements, heal it, and suppress the growth of weeds.
Their roots loosen the earth and saturate it with oxygen. In the spring, the soil is dug up, the earthy lump is turned over with the grass down.
Onion sets per turnip
This onion has a diameter of about 1-3 cm, but you need to plant the smallest one – about 0.8-10 mm. In the fall, it is available in any market and is quite inexpensive.
Why do you need to take the small one? The answer is simple. Small onions most often do not have flower arrows, and the greens are weak and small. But by the beginning of June, you will be able to harvest the ripe onion.
The landing pattern is quite simple. In a row, there should be a distance of about 4-5 cm between each bulb, and about 12 cm between the beds.
Onions are planted in late September or early October. In the southern regions, this can be done before the beginning of November.
Recommended bulb varieties are Carmen or Sturon onion sets. From the practice of summer residents, these varieties are the least likely to shoot arrows.
Onions for greens
The planting material will be onion picks or onion sets. The best indicators in terms of yield are given by the bulbs of multi-primordial large onions-selection. Its bulb reaches about 3-4 cm, and the greens are tender and juicy.
This variety is best planted in late autumn, about 2 weeks before frost. It is necessary to choose the moment so that the plant can take root well, but so that the process of feather growth does not start yet.
The depth of planting in the ground should be about 4-5 cm., Then there is a layer of mulch, the height of which is about 10 cm, made of humus or peat. Another bonus is that no watering of the sown seed is needed.
Well, how can you do without garlic on the farm? Podwinny varieties of this culture are planted around the second half of September or early October. The reference point will be the time a month and a half before the cold weather.
For planting, it is best to choose large cloves of garlic. Remember that the larger the cloves are planted, the larger the crop heads will be.
The process of planting garlic in the country is as follows. Directly on the day of planting, we divide the head of garlic already into cloves and remove the bottom, which can prevent the plant from germinating.
The planting pattern is usually 15-20 cm between the teeth in a row, and 20 cm directly between the rows themselves. Planting depth is approximately 4-5cm.
An obligatory item will be the processing of seedlings with peat or humus, which is removed in early spring.
Another popular vegetable that must be present at the summer cottage. The planting process takes place with the help of seeds, which are sown 2 weeks before frost, when the air temperature is + 2- + 3 degrees. They sow 15-20% more from the consumption, since the possibility of loss must be taken into account.
The seeding pattern is simple. You need to adhere to a distance of about 2-3cm. between the seeds and 20 cm between the rows, while the depth will be about 2-3 cm.
Similarly, like carrots, you need to sow before frost, somewhere in the month of November. There are not so many varieties from which to choose. Recommended options are Cold Resistant Beets 19 or Podzimnyaya 474, or Bordeaux. All other species will shoot from the cold.
When sowing, a distance of 10 cm must be observed. between seeds and 20cm. between the rows. The planting depth will be 2-3 cm., While you will need to make an additional layer of mulch 3-4 cm. height.
Planting seedlings of fruit trees in September
Planting seedlings of fruit trees in the fall also has its own characteristics. All fruit trees and shrubs are sold in two versions – with a closed root system (in containers) and a large clod of earth, and with an open root.
In seedlings with an open root, the roots are very much cut, by about 80-90% – such seedlings can be planted only in spring. Moreover, choose carefully – take a closer look at the plant – a seedling freshly dug in the nursery has young buds that are starting to bloom, if they are not there, you risk purchasing goods not sold in the fall in the spring, which has almost no chance of taking root.
By the way, please note that when buying seedlings in the fall, preparation for winter begins – they must have signs of autumn wilting, yellowing or reddening of the leaves.
Do not buy plants with juicy green leaves, without signs of “autumn” – they have not completed the growing season, they will die before winter.
Dates of planting seedlings in autumn: end of September – October, depending on the region, two to three weeks before frost. We prepare the landing pits a few days before disembarkation.
In the autumn planting of shrubs (currants, gooseberries), apple trees, pears and other trees, there is a risk of damage by rodents. There are many methods of protection, the most effective are a plastic mesh around the barrel (the higher the better) or winding the barrel with nylon tights (they are too tough for rodents).
You also have to make sure that the ground under the seedling does not dry out until the very frosts. For the winter, the trees need to be insulated.
In regions with severe winters, the insulation should be carried out in this way: at a distance of about 40 cm from the trunk of the seedling, drive-in four pegs, cover with burlap and pour sawdust or leaves into the “well”.
In addition, as the snow falls, the seedlings need to be additionally covered with snow and trampled down, this at the same time will help from mice – they make their way only in loose fluffy snow.
What to plant on flower beds in September in open ground
Many flowers in nature reproduce by self-seeding. The seeds hibernate under the snow, and in the spring they begin to germinate, passing through natural stratification.
Plants acquire immunity to diseases and pests, become hardened, and develop better. The root system turns out to be more branched and powerful, which allows the flowers to extract more nutrients and water and better resist weeds.
Not all ornamental plants can withstand overwintering under the snow. You can plant before winter in the Moscow region:
- Turkish carnation;
Sowing is carried out on frozen ground in late October – early November, or even on snow in December. The soil is prepared in advance.
What greens to plant in September in open ground
Of course, you can constantly maintain in the garden fragrant thickets of fast-growing green spices: dill, coriander, basil, parsley, green onions and other fast-growing and cold-resistant herbs. The crop is ready for use in 20-40 days after planting.
So that the herbs sprout faster and not be capricious, there are several secrets:
- Before planting, you need to rub the seeds in your palms against each other so that they get micro-scratches – scarify, and then soak for a day in warm water. Some recommend soaking it in milk for a couple of hours;
- You can also use growth accelerators, biostimulants like epin;
- Before planting, the land must be properly fertilized with nitrogen-potassium fertilizing. Then shoots can be expected within 8-10 days after planting, and after another 2 weeks, feast on young greens. But if it gets cold, the first shoots can hatch in three weeks.
All of these plants are capable of producing crops this year. But from the second half of September and later, you can start planting many plants already before winter in order to harvest in early spring.
These are onions, garlic, sorrel, spinach, beets, radishes, carrots, parsley and many others. More information about planting for the next year is described in the article How to properly sow vegetables before winter.
Remember to alternate the beds so that the soil does not deplete and disease builds up. Not all plants also tolerate being close to each other.
Soil preparation in September
Before planting, it is imperative to prepare the soil.
Below are the tips:
- If the land in the garden is poor in black soil, it is worth starting land from other areas, rich in black soil, if this has not been done.
- Before sowing, cleaning various weeds and tops is mandatory.
- Once every 3-4 years, you need to apply various kinds of fertilizers to the ground – this is due to the gradual depletion of the soil as a nutrient basis for the growth of vegetables and other things.
If you have a rich harvest every year, it is worth applying fertilizers once every 2 years:
- Improving the soil in terms of looseness and water permeability should be done with compost, leaf humus or ash / sand. This procedure should be carried out on heavy clay soils.
- The acidity in soils can be neutralized with a solution of chalk or lime, as well as dolomite flour.
Autumn digging is carried out in two ways – dump and non-dump:
- Dumping method – a lump of earth is excavated with a shovel and the top layer of the earth is sealed to the depth of the bayonet of the shovel. In this way, you can get rid of two problems – weeds and pests. If the weed seeds do not germinate, then the larvae of the pests appear on the surface and die with the onset of frost.
- The dump-free method – to preserve the microflora, the dug out lump of earth is not broken.
The cultivation of the land in the greenhouse differs from the usual one:
- First, the soil is replaced – a layer 7-15 cm thick is removed and replaced with a fresh one. Fresh soil must be prepared by yourself, because she does not fit from the garden. Usually, a fresh portion is prepared from manure, humus, wood ash or sawdust.
If it is impossible to replace the top layer, disinfection is necessarily carried out in a different way – with boiling water, a solution of potassium permanganate, or special biological products.